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iWinery (Hong Kong) Company Limited® 上品酒莊 (香港) 有限公司® California Life Style® Winery

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Bitter Melon Wines - ***Exclusive from iWinery (Hong Kong) Company Ltd®

bittermelon.jpg (252674 bytes) 

iWinery (Hong Kong) Company Ltd® has the exclusive license for Hong Kong and China from the patented wine making process from Momordica. The patented winemaking process concentrates the medicinal benefits further but significantly reduces the bitterness associated with bitter melon, producing a very palatable award winning wine that is very pleasant to drink alongside with Asian cuisine. ***You cannot buy this proprietary wine elsewhere in China and Hong Kong.

iWinery®上品酒莊(香港)有限公司®專利的有機苦瓜酒是香港和中國大陸的獨家授權經銷商。專利釀酒過程中的藥用價值,進一步集中,但顯著降低苦瓜的苦味,產生了非常可口的獲獎有機苦瓜酒, 和亞洲美食一起喝是優秀的配對,非常愉快的享受。 ***iWinery®上品酒莊(香港)有限公司®是中國大陸和香港獨家授權經銷商。

苦瓜雖然貌不驚人,口感也不是很好,但卻因為可以清熱解暑、消脂除煩,降血糖,健脾開胃,深受大家喜愛。但是,也有些人不太接受或者不適合苦瓜青澀的苦味。

中國中醫科學院教授楊力介紹,苦瓜在烹調後,苦味變淡,寒性也會減弱。脾胃虛寒的人熟吃苦瓜,有增進食慾、益氣補血明目的作用。

酒在生活中很常見,朋友聚會吃點酒,家中每天晚上父母也會吃上一點,有利於健康嘛,你知道酒還有別的用處嗎,接來就來說一下生活小竅門-酒的妙用

有機苦瓜酒具有清熱解毒、怡心明目、養血滋肝、潤脾補腎等多種功效。常飲苦瓜酒,可促進食慾、清熱解毒、泄熱通便,而且還具有預防和治療感冒、扁桃體炎、咳嗽等作用。苦瓜酒是近年來我國場上出現的一種保健藥酒,具有清熱解毒、怡心明目、養血滋肝、潤脾補腎等多種功效。常飲苦瓜酒,可促進食慾、清熱解毒、泄熱通便,而且還具有預防和治療感冒、扁桃體炎、咳嗽等作用。

有機苦瓜酒

有機苦瓜酒是美國加州一种專利方法生產的保健药酒,具有清热解毒、怡心明目、养血滋肝、润脾补肾等多种功效。常饮苦瓜酒,可促进食欲、清热解毒、泄热通便,而且还具有预防和治疗感冒、扁桃体炎、咳嗽等作用。苦瓜酒是近年一种保健药酒,具有清热解毒、怡心明目、养血滋肝、润脾补肾等多种功效。常饮苦瓜酒,明显的降血糖胆固醇效果。可促进食欲、清热解毒、泄热通便,而且还具有预防和治疗感冒、扁桃体炎、咳嗽等作用。

苦瓜的健身作用 

据统计,仅美国俄州,就有13个大型的药厂生产苦瓜素,全美国每天有300-600 万人恢复了迷人的苗条身材,而且对血脂、血压、血糖、动脉硬化的作用也引起了广泛关注。如果到了日本,花上三万日元就可以买到美国维灵生物科技公司生产的一瓶 FDA认证的“苦瓜素”。在中国香港,“苦瓜素”正在成为女士们、先生们的热门话题。 

苦瓜素(RPA),这种被誉为“脂肪杀手”的特效成分能使摄取的脂肪和多糖减少40 %-60%左右。利用苦瓜减肥,无任何毒副作用。 
小资料 

苦瓜来源:为葫芦科植物苦瓜的果实。性味:苦、寒 

成分:主含有苦瓜甙、类蛋白活性物质(即α—苦瓜素,β-苦瓜素、MAP30), 类胰岛素活性物质(即多肽-P)及多种氨基酸。

功能:清暑清热、明目、解毒。治热病、中暑、痢疾、赤眼疼痛、肿痛丹毒、恶 疮。 

苦瓜是我们经常食用的一种蔬菜,它属于葫芦科苦瓜属植物,性味苦寒,具有清凉解热、滋养强壮等功效。目前科学家已经提纯并证实的成分有苦瓜凝集素、苦瓜素、核糖体失活蛋白、莆瓜素苷、胡萝卜、甾醇、MAP 30蛋白、P蛋白等。本文仪简介苦瓜在降血糖、抗肿瘤和抗病毒方面的保健作用。 

一、降血糖作用 

研究发现,苦瓜不但可明显降低禁食后血糖水平,而且还可明显降低肝脏中胆固醇和甘油三酯的水平。进一步的研究观察到,苦瓜不同部位提取物的降糖效果不同,对胰岛素依赖型和非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病的降血糖效果也不同。其中苦瓜的果皮提取物降糖效果更明显,可使餐后血糖下降36%。苦瓜种子、全果、全果去皂角素的提取物对禁食和餐后胰岛素依赖型糖尿病大鼠的血糖水平均无明显影响,而苦瓜汁却可明显降低非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病大鼠禁食后血糖水平,并使其餐后血糖含量降低50%,说明苦瓜汁具有较明显的降血糖效果。研究还表明,口服苦瓜全果的丙酮提取物15~30天,血糖和血清胆固醇即可降至正常水平,甚至停止服用苦瓜提取物之后15天,血糖水平也没有升高,说明苦瓜提取物的降血糖效果比较稳定 持久。 

苦瓜果实提取物与降血糖常用药比较实验的结果表明,药物诱导的糖尿病大鼠每千克体重给予500毫克剂量的苦瓜果实提取物,町使餐后1小时的血精水平降低10%~15%,效果相当于给予同样剂景甲苯磺丁脲降糖效果的25%~30%,或者相当于每干克体重给予100毫克甲苯磺丁脲降糖效果的40%。在与二甲双胍比较降血糖效果时发现,二甲双胍使糖尿病模型大鼠餐后1小时、2小时、3.5小时的血糖水平均降低40%~50%,尽管苦瓜提取物降糖效果低于二甲双胍,但也可使餐后3.5小时的血糖显著降低26%。此外,人群研究显示,莆瓜汁可使73%的糖尿病病人葡萄糖耐量提高。可见,苦瓜作为天然食物,具有很好的降糖效果。 

二、抗肿瘤作用 

早在1982年,科学家就发现苦瓜的粗提物有增强机体免疫力,增强机体抗肿瘤作用的功能。无论是给予苦瓜原汁还是苦瓜提取液,均可显著增强小鼠的血清血凝抗体水平、血清溶菌酶含量以及血白细胞的吞噬能力,增强机体免疫功能。这可能是苦瓜粗提物抗肿瘤的原因之一。 

许多人食用苦瓜时,为了净削皮吃,其实这是不科学的。科学家比较苦瓜皮、果肉、种子、全果提取物局部治疗的抗肿瘤疗效时发现,苦瓜皮效果最好,其次是全果、种子、果肉。 

三、抗病毒作用 

苦瓜果实还具有抗白血病和抗病毒的功能。从苦瓜纯化得到的一种蛋白因子可对多种肿瘤细胞均具有长效或短效的杀灭活性。 

另外,科学家从苦瓜果实和种子中提纯出来一种的新蛋白质MAP30,它具有抗人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV,即艾滋痫病毒)作用。研究人员将人肺成纤维细胞培养在含MAP30的培养液中,接种单纯疱疹病毒24~48小时后,检测病毒抗原发现,只需0.1~0.2微摩/升的MAP30即可对病毒产生有效抑制作用,而阿昔洛韦(一种常川抗单纯疱疹病毒药物)对不同类型单纯疱疹病毒产生有效抑制浓度需要0.2微摩/升和1.6微摩/升,这说明MAP30具有高效抗病毒功能,对治疗疱疹感染是非常有效的。另外,苦瓜提取物可抑制HIV的表面活性,选择性地杀死被HIV感染的淋巴细胞和巨噬细胞。与阿昔洛韦等抗HIV药物相比,MAP30的最大优点是对多种病毒和肿瘤细胞有效,而对未感染的正常细胞如T细胞、巨噬细胞、单核细胞,以及肾细胞、肝细胞、神经细胞 、皮肤细胞和人胚胎细胞等均无毒性。 

科学家还从成熟苦瓜果实及种子中得到一种蛋白质,结构与MAP30类似,命名为MRK29。MRK29还具有免疫细胞调节作用,它可使肿瘤坏死因子活性增强三倍。 

由此可见,苦瓜既可降血糖,又可抗肿瘤和抗病毒,是一种集药用和食用为一一体的具有较高营养保健价值的蔬菜,长期食用对糖尿病患者、肿瘤患者及身体虚弱者均有较好的保健效果,建议大家经常食用这种蔬菜。

苦瓜

苦瓜是一种好吃的食品。用苦瓜加粳米、糖,煮成苦瓜粥,有清暑涤热、清心明目的解毒作用,可治热痛烦渴、中暑发热、流感痢疾、目赤疼痛等症;用苦瓜加瘦肉煮成苦瓜汤,有清热解暑、明目去毒的作用,适用于暑热烦渴、痱子过多、眼结膜炎等症;用苦瓜焖鸡翅,加黄酒、姜汁、酱油、糖、盐调味,有清肝明目、补肾润脾、解热除烦等功效。苦瓜还可制成保健饮料。用青苦瓜泡制或煎汤成凉茶,可以清暑怡神,除烦止渴;用青苦瓜制成糖汁,饮后可清热解毒,补肾润脾。 

苦瓜是一剂良药。苦瓜以根、茎、叶、花、果实和种子供药用,性寒,味苦,入心、脾、胃经,清暑涤热,明目解毒。据《随息居饮食谱》记载,苦瓜“青则苦寒涤热,明目清心,熟则养血滋肝,润脾补肾”。《生生编》记载,苦瓜能“除邪热,解劳乏,清心明目,益气壮阳”。《本草纲目》记载,苦瓜“清心明目,益气解热”。 

苦瓜有降低血糖和防治癌症作用。苦瓜为苦寒之品,含苦瓜甙、苦瓜素等。据近代药理试验,苦瓜有降低血糖的作用,认为这是由于苦瓜中含有一种类似胰岛素物质的缘故,其效果比现用降血糖药“甲磺丁脲”还强,所以苦瓜是糖尿病患者的理想保健食品。苦瓜防治癌症的前景也很广阔。在国外,科学家把苦瓜中的脂蛋白类成分注入患有淋巴癌的老鼠体内,老鼠存活时间延长,这说明苦瓜脂蛋白类成分能提高细胞免疫功能。因此,科学家预言,苦瓜可能成为治疗癌症的新药。 

苦瓜的营养丰富,抗坏血酸含量在瓜类中突出,为黄瓜的14倍,冬瓜的5倍,西红柿的7倍。据营养分析资料,每l00克苦瓜可食部分,含水分84克,蛋白质0.9克,脂肪0.2克,碳水化合物3.2克,无机盐0.6克,粗纤维1.1克,热量75.3千焦,维生素A0.08毫克,维生素B10.07毫克,维生素B20.04毫克,钙18毫克,磷29毫克,铁0.6毫克。苦瓜的果实中含有苦瓜甙,还有谷氨酸、丙氨酸、苯丙氨酸、脯氨酸、瓜氨酸、半乳糖醛酸等。苦瓜的种子和叶中含有大量的苦瓜素。 

苦瓜因其特殊的苦味而得名。各地有许多不同的名称,如癞瓜、锦(金)荔枝、癞葡萄、癞哈蟆、红姑娘、凉瓜、君子菜等。这些名字中的“癞”大约是指苦瓜表面有许多不规则的瘤状突起,果形多数为纺缍形和长圆锥形或短圆锥形。嫩果为浓绿色或淡绿色。称苦瓜为“红姑娘”可能是指随着生理成熟度增加,表皮转为绿白发亮,逐渐变至黄红色。达到红熟果实,顶部极易开裂,露出血红色的瓜瓤,瓤内包裹着种子,一般每瓜有20-50粒种子。从苦瓜的主要作用在清热解毒这一点,称之为“凉瓜”似较贴切。 

苦瓜原产于印度东部,约在明代传入我国南方。苦瓜属于葫芦科苦瓜属的一年生蔓性植物。它的茎、叶、花和果实都显奇特,可作为观赏植物栽培,近年来苦瓜成为美化庭院立体栽培的品种,体现出它的观赏与食用相结合的价值。 

苦瓜的类型,按瓜皮颜色来分,有青(绿)皮苦瓜和白皮苦瓜;按果实形状分,有短圆锥形和长圆锥形、长圆筒形;按果实大小分,有大型苦瓜和小型苦瓜。现在我国各地栽培的苦瓜,大都属于大型苦瓜,呈圆筒形,两头稍尖,一般长16-49厘米,横径5-7厘米。种子在果实中下部位,果实成熟时,极易开裂掉出种子。果实表面的瘤状突起细密美观,果皮的颜色随着发育程度不断变化,幼果期为深绿色;到商品成熟期变为绿色、绿白色或白色,到了生理成熟期,均为红黄色。 

苦瓜在我国栽培比较普遍,长江以南各省市和北方大城市郊区都有栽培,而且形成了各地自己的地方品种。如广东的滑身苦瓜、长身苦瓜、大顶苦瓜、夏丰苦瓜、夏雷苦瓜、穗新一号,湖南的大白苦瓜、蓝山大白苦瓜,四川的雅安大白苦瓜,北京白苦瓜,贵州的独山白苦瓜,陕西的汉中白苦瓜和山西的小苦瓜等等。 

苦瓜适应性广,喜温,耐热,喜湿润,怕雨涝,耐肥,不耐瘠,在这些条件适宜时,能连续开花结果,陆续收获。采收的时间,自开花后12-15天为适宜采收期,应及时采收。 


ABSTRACT

Plants in the genus Momordica are known for their medicinal values such as those used to treat cancer, HIV, diabetes and other maladies. There are many preparations from Momordica plants that are used for medicinal treatments but the major drawback is the bitterness and palatability of these preparations. A method of extracting these medicinal compounds, specifically those that are water soluble and alcohol soluble have been developed and the resulting product is an alcoholic beverage that has high amounts of medicinal compounds from plants of Momordica genus. The resulting alcoholic beverage is much more pleasant to drink.

Background of Bitter Melon Wine

Plants in the genus Momordica are cucurbits that are known for their medicinal properties. The Momordica genus belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae in Kingdom Plantae. There are about 83 known species of plants in Genus Momordica. These plants are annual or perennial climbers, are herbaceous, or rarely small shrub, natives of tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Australia. They are often cultivated as vegetables, with the fruits, stems and leaves prepared in various recipes. Lately, due to the recent scientific and clinical studies, various plant extracts from Momordica plants are prepared and various patents exists for their various methods of extraction and usage, but none have used the art of wine making using Momordica plant parts to extract many of the water-soluble and alcohol soluble bioactive and nutritive components. 

There are many species and cultivars belonging to the Momordica genus and the most commonly cultivated and studied species is Momordica charantia. The other popular species included Momordica balsamina, Momordica boivinii, and Momordica cochinchinensis.

Momordica plants are widely grown for their very bitter but edible fruit. They belong to the cucurbit family of vine plants that include melons and gourds. Indians, Africans, Chinese and other Asian cultures grow these popular gourds. The most popular Momordica species is M, charantia and the English names for the plant and its fruit include bitter melon or bitter gourd. Known as ampalaya by the Tagalog and amargozo by other Philippine dialects. South American and Caribbean names include Balsamino, Carilla, and Saraseed. It has also been known simply as Charantia.

The fruits, stems and leaves of Momordica plants are a rich source of vitamin C, Folate (Vitamin B9), Vitamin K, Thiamine, Riboflavin, and other vitamins. They are also a good source of Zinc, Potassium, Iron, other nutrients and excellent source of dietary fiber.

These plants have been used as part of the local pharmacopoeia of Indian, Chinese, and African cultures, dating back several thousand years. It is used as laxative, anthelminthic and abortive. They are also used as a remedy for chronic colitis, bacillary dysentery, catarrh, flux, and cough. They are used to alleviate symptoms of gout, rheumatism and some cases of spleen and liver problems. Momordica plants, especially those of M. charantia are also helpful to people with sluggish digestion, dyspepsia, and constipation. Recently, their anti-diabetic properties have been confirmed in many animal and human clinical trials. Some of the most modern hospitals in India often dispense bitter melon supplements to help control diabetes. The leaves of the plants when used as tea have been confirmed to control malaria in laboratory tests. The plant extracts have also been proven to reduce visceral obesity or help fight obesity by reducing unwanted fats.

Eating M. charantia fruits or taking concentrated extracts is especially good in boosting the immunities of people that have cancer or those that are infected with HIV/AIDS. Extracts from the plants are showing that it has immunomodulator properties, which means that it boosts immune cell function in people with cancer and HIV infections.

Many studies from the world over proves that bitter melon help prevent or counteract type-II diabetes. The Philippine Department of Health issued a circular stating that bitter melon, as a scientifically validated herbal medicinal plant, can lower elevated blood sugar levels. The study revealed that a 100 milligram per kilo dose per day is comparable to 2.5 milligrams of the anti-diabetes drug Glibenclamide taken twice per day.

Recent studies have shown that M. charantia contains four very promising compounds that activate a protein called AMPK (5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase), an enzyme that plays a role in controlling cellular energy balance and facilitating glucose uptake, which are malfunctioning in diabetic persons. Bitter melon also contains a type of lectin that has insulin-like property. The lectin's insulin-like bioactivity is due to its linking together 2 insulin receptors. This lectin lowers blood glucose concentrations by acting on peripheral tissues and, similar to insulin's effects in the brain, suppressed appetite. The lectin is likely a major contributor to the hypoglycemic effect that develops after eating bitter melon and why it may be a way of managing adult-onset diabetes. Lectin binding is non-protein specific, and this is likely why bitter melon has been credited with immunostimulatory activity - by linking receptors that modulate the immune system, thereby stimulating said receptors.

Other known compounds in the Momordica plants include Momordicins in the form of Momordicosides A, B, Q, R, S and T, that are pinpointed to be boosting the immunities of people against cancer and HIV/Aids, Cucurbitane Triterpenoids, Cucurbitane glycosides, Porphyrins (mainly responsible for anti-diabetic properties), Vincine, Mycose, Karaviloside, Momorcharin and Charantin.

Perhaps, the biggest drawback to the Western World’s usage of Momordica plants is the bitterness imparted from the plant parts, especially the various cooking recipes and herbal tea preparations. This invention aims to attenuate the bitterness of the plant extracts, maximize the extraction of water-soluble and alcohol soluble components of the Momordica plant parts which can be done using wine making method where the plant materials are fruits, stems, tendrils and leaves or any combination thereof, of plants belonging to Momordica genus. In the several past trials done by the inventor Joselito Real, he found that wine yeasts lasted longer and will often bring the wine to dryness, completing fermentation. It is very important to note that consuming plants in the Momordica genus has no negative effects on normal people that are non-diabetic so that it can be enjoyed by a wide diversity of people.

Capturing the medicinal essences while attenuating the bitterness of the charantia fruits is the main reason why this unique wine making process was invented to produce Momordica wine. The careful wine making process allowed for longer steeping methods for maximum extraction of all water soluble and alcohol soluble medicinal compounds from Momordica plant parts. To further attenuate the imparted bitterness and improve the wine flavor, cinnamon is optionally added at the end of fermentation process. Cinnamon in itself is known for its medicinal properties that alleviate diabetic symptoms. This would further boost the anti-diabetic properties of the wine and improve its flavor. Cinnamon is also a good wine preservative, and when used correctly will help clarify the wine. The addition of cinnamon will stop fermentation of the yeast and stabilize the wine from microbial contamination, foregoing the need to use harsh chemical preservatives such as sulfites and sorbates.

There is a need in the art to make beverages that are more delightful to drink and yet imparts the nutritional and health benefits derived from plants belonging to the genus Momordica. 

References:

A histological study of the structural changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without Momordica charantia (bitter gourd). Teoh SL, Latiff AA, Das S. Clin Ter. 2009 Jul-Aug;160(4):283-6.

An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract. Fernandes NP, Lagishetty CV, Panda VS, Naik SR. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2007, 7:29

Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review. Leung L, Birtwhistle R, Kotecha J, Hannah S, Cuthbertson S. Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(12):1703-8.

Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Patel SS, Shah RS, Goyal RK. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Jul;47(7):564-70.

Anti-tumor activity and immunological modification of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Momordica charantia by covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol. Li M, Chen Y, Liu Z, Shen F, Bian X, Meng Y. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009 Sep;41(9):792-9.

Bitter gourd suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses. Kobori M, et. al. National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan.

Bitter melon protects against lipid peroxidation caused by immobilization stress in albino rats. Chaturvedi P. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 Jan;79(1):48-56.

Complementary and Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Seed, Momordica charantia Fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in Rats. Yadav M, Lavania A, Tomar R, Prasad GB, Jain S, Yadav H. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009 Nov 11.

Differential scanning calorimetric and spectroscopic studies on the unfolding of Momordica charantia lectin. Similar modes of thermal and chemical denaturation. Kavitha M, Bobbili KB, Swamy MJ. Biochimie. 2009 Sep 22.

Effect of Momordica charantia L. in the resistance to aminoglycosides in methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Coutinho HD, Costa JG, Falcăo-Silva VS, Siqueira-Júnior JP, Lima EO. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 2.

Effects of Momordica charantia on insulin resistance and visceral obesity in mice on high-fat diet. Shih CC, Lin CH, Lin WL. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Aug;81(2):134-43. Epub 2008 Jun 11.

Eleostearic Acid inhibits breast cancer proliferation by means of an oxidation-dependent mechanism. Grossmann ME, Mizuno NK, Dammen ML, Schuster T, Ray A, Cleary MP. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009 Oct;2(10):879-86.

Enzymatic properties of a recombinant phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase from Momordica charantia and its complementation function in yeast. Dong CJ, Yang XD, Liu JY. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009 May;74(5):502-8.

Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K. Kumar R, Balaji S, Uma TS, Sehgal PK. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):533-7. Epub 2009 Sep 8.

Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants. Morabad RB, Kerur BR. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009 Oct 24.

No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: a pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men. Kasbia GS, Arnason JT, Imbeault P. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Oct 29;126(1):127-33.

Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti viral therapy. Puri M, Kaur I, Kanwar RK, Gupta RC, Chauhan A, Kanwar JR. Curr Mol Med. 2009 Dec;9(9):1080-94.

Role of Momordica charantia in maintaining the normal levels of lipids and glucose in diabetic rats fed a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet. Chaturvedi P. Br J Biomed Sci. 2005;62(3):124-6.

GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Momordica". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/ splist.pl?7719. Retrieved October 22, 2009.

"Plant Name Query Results for Momordica". IPNI. Retrieved October 22, 2009.

Aronia Berry Wines

腺肋花楸(野櫻莓)Aronia Berry

腺肋花楸果酒药用价值

该树种是集食用、药用、园林和生态等价值于一身的珍贵树种。黑果腺肋花楸果实具有非凡的保健作用。果实及其提取物对心脏病、高血压等心脑血管疾病具有特殊的疗效,在欧美地区广泛应用于医药和功能食品工业。果实中花青素、黄酮(鲜果含量高达0.25%-0.35%)、多酚是已知植物中含量最高的。果实还含有多种维生素和矿质元素等物质。多酚是改善毛细血管和血管的结构与机能的非常重要的物质,还有助于刺激和改善循环系统。花青素和黄酮能够维持人的心脏和机体的健康。据《新英格兰医药杂志》(339卷,15期)报道,花青素和黄酮(及其糖苷)有助于保持尿道健康。黑果腺肋花楸果实富含Vc和抗氧化剂(Beta Carotene(胡萝卜素)),抗氧化剂具有抗衰老功能。果实提取物对治疗辐射病和重金属中毒症有很好的疗效。伊利诺斯州立大学功能食品项目的研究人员得出了黑果腺肋花楸果实含有治疗癌症和心脏病的特定化合物的结论。果实可用于加工果汁、果酒、果酱、罐头、果脯等食品和饮料。

http://www.raysahelian.com/aronia.html  

Aronia berry health benefit by Ray Sahelian, M.D. This plant is known by the botanical name Aronia arbutifolia or melanocarpa

Aronia or chokeberries are native to eastern North America and are often found growing in swamps or damp woodlands. The hardy shrub reaches about 2-4 meters in height and withstands salt and swampy conditions. The plant produces very bitter dark purple fruit clusters that are often used in jam and wine making. Aronia berries have been an important and integral part of the native Indian diet for hundreds of years.

Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice and anthocyanins derived from the fruits have been studied intensively, particularly in Bulgaria and eastern Europe. This plant appears to have compounds that are protective to the liver, have blood sugar stabilizing properties, anti-tumor, and have anti-inflammatory activity.

Nutritional content

Aronia contains a high concentration of flavonoids and antioxidants. Berries are full of flavonoids, trace minerals and phenolic phytochemicals, including anthocyanins, of which it contains one of the highest of any known plant (several times higher than cranberry juice). Some of these specific substances include cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin, quercetin, caffeic acid, delphinidin, malvidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin.

Health benefit

Aronia melanocarpa fruits are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, mainly anthocyanins--glycosides of cyanidin. Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments accounting for the dark blue and even black color of the fruits. The main active ingredients of Aronia melanocarpa fruit are phenolic substances, mainly flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. Aronia may be helpful in blood sugar control and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors..

Combination therapy of statin with flavonoids rich extract from chokeberry fruits enhanced reduction in cardiovascular risk markers in patients after myocardial infraction (MI).

Atherosclerosis. 2007; Naruszewicz M, Laniewska I, Millo B,. Department of Pharmacognosy and Molecular Basis of Phythotherapy, Medical University of Warsaw, Ul. Banacha 1, Warszawa, Poland; Center for Atherosclerosis Research, Pomeranian Medical University Szczecin, Poland.

Forty-four patients who survived myocardial infraction and have received statin therapy for at least 6 months (80% dose of 40mg/day simvastatin) were included in the study. The subjects were randomised to receive either 3x 85mg/day of chokeberry flavonoid extract (Aronia melanocarpa E) or placebo for a period of 6 weeks. The study extract was a commercially-available product of the following declared composition: anthocyans (about 25%), polymeric procyanidines (about 50%) and phenolic acids (about 9%). Compared to placebo, flavonoids significantly reduced serum 8-isoprostans and Ox-LDL levels, as well as hsCRP and MCP-1 levels. In addition, significant increase in adiponectin levels and reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found. 

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007. Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria. 

Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice is rich in phenolic antioxidants, especially flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on plasma glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice significantly decreased the streptozotocin-induced abnormalities in blood glucose and triblycerides in diabetic rats and might be useful in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications.

Aronia side effects

No major aronia side effects have yet been reported.

The shrub

The Aronia plant is a deciduous shrub native to the eastern part of North America and also grows in cooler parts of Europe and Asia. The plants are usually about three to 10 feet tall. The shrub grows well in wet areas, and is a very resilient plant that will easily resist the dangers of drought, pests, disease, and pollution. Species of Aronia are differentiated by the color of their small berries, either black (Aronia melanocarpa), red (Aronia arbutifolia), or the purple hybrid (Aronia prunifolia). Due to the tannins, the berries are very astringent when raw - hence the name "chokeberry" - but when cooked they can be used in a variety of delicious ways such as wine, jam, syrup, or even candies. Aronia is also used as a natural color or flavoring for food products like yogurt or juices. The intense coloring of Aronia berries is actually a natural defense from harsh sunlight. The pigmentation develops as a "sunscreen" to protect the pulp and seeds from the sun's UV rays.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aronia  

Products and uses

The chokeberries are attractive ornamental plants for gardens. They are naturally understory and woodland edge plants, and grow well when planted under trees. Chokeberries are resistant to drought, insects, pollution, and disease. Several cultivars have been developed for garden planting, including A. arbutifolia 'Brilliant', selected for its striking fall leaf color. A. melanocarpa 'Viking' and 'Nero' were selected for larger fruit suitable for jam-making, and because they are self-fertile only one plant is needed to produce fruit.

Juice from these berries is astringent and not sweet, but high in vitamin C and antioxidants. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, and tea.[14] In The U.S. aronia berries are used in mass-marketed juice blends for color and marketed for their antioxidant properties. The Voruta label exports a Chokeberry wine from Lithuania. In Poland they are dried to make a herbal tea. The tea is usually a blend with other more flavorful ingredients including blackcurrant.[14] Aronia is also used as a flavoring or colorant for beverages or yogurts.

The red chokeberry's fruit is more palatable and can be eaten raw. It has a sweeter flavor than the black species and is used to make jam or pemmican.

Antioxidant qualities

Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of phenolic phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins. Total anthocyanin content in chokeberries is 1480 mg per 100 g of fresh berries, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g. Both values are among the highest measured in plants to date.

The plant produces these pigments mainly in the skin of the berries to protect the pulp and seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[18] By absorbing UV rays in the blue-purple spectrum, pigments filter intense sunlight and thereby have a role assuring regeneration of the species. Brightly colorful pigmentation also attracts birds and other animals to consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Anthocyanins not only contribute toward chokeberry's astringent property (that would deter pests and infections) but also give Aronia melanocarpa extraordinary antioxidant strength that combats oxidative stress in the fruit during photosynthesis.

A test tube measurement of antioxidant strength, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC, demonstrates chokeberry with one of the highest values yet recorded—16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 g (see this ORAC reference for antioxidant scores for 277 common foods).

There is growing appreciation for consumers to increase their intake of antioxidant-rich plant foods from colorful sources like berries, tree or citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices. Accordingly, a deep blue food source such as chokeberry yields anthocyanins in high concentrations per serving, indicating potential value as a functional food or nutraceutical.

Analysis of anthocyanins in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the plant kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin, caffeic acid, quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these except caffeic acid are members of the flavonoid category of antioxidant phenolics.

For reference to phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and similar plant-derived antioxidants, Wikipedia has a list of phytochemicals and foods in which they are prominent.

Efficacy in disease models

Chokeberries' rich antioxidant content may be beneficial as a dietary preventative for reducing the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. Among the models under evaluation where preliminary results show benefits of chokeberry anthocyanins are colorectal cancer,[20] cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, gastric mucosal disorders (peptic ulcer), eye inflammation (uveitis) and liver failure.

黑果腺肋花楸是集食用、藥用、園林和生態價值於一身的薔薇科落葉灌木。果實富含黃酮、花青素和多酚等物質,其提取物對治療心髒病、高血壓等心腦血管疾病有特效。

關鍵詞:黑果腺肋花楸;花灌木;園林;黃酮;高血壓;心髒病

1.0 引種背景及國內外發展概況

1.1 引種背景
我國無此樹種。遼寧省乾旱地區造林研究所利用所承擔的國家林業局
“948項目,先後從國外引進8個品種。 1990年,從朝鮮引進一個品種,朝鮮是從捷克引進的。 1998年,從俄羅斯引進1個品種。 2001年,從美國引進6個品種。目前,我國已擁有了該樹種的較豐富的種質資源基礎。

1.2 國內外發展概況
該樹種原產於美國東北部,歐洲已有
100餘年的引種栽培歷史,加拿大、俄羅斯、保加利亞、匈牙利、波蘭、捷克等國家都有相當規模的栽培和相關的加工產業。全球品種資源達30餘個,分別適用於食用、藥用、園林綠化和適生於不同的氣候、土壤條件。在育種方面,多倍體良種主要是由歐洲培育出來的,二倍體良種主要是在北美地區選育出來的。在歐美和東亞地區,該樹種在園林綠化方面的應用非常廣泛;由果實加工的藥品、保健飲料和食品在市場上非常普及和流行。

我國自引種以來,相繼完成了繁殖、栽培、區試等方面的研究,繁殖苗木
20餘萬株,營造栽培試驗示範園200餘畝,佈置區域試驗點10餘個。該樹種適應性強、結果早、見效快、經濟價值高,無論作為特種經濟林栽培,還是用於園林綠化,都具有廣闊的市場前景。目前,該樹種已進入推廣開發階段。
生物學和生態學特性

黑果腺肋花楸(
Aronia melanocarpa)系薔薇科腺肋花楸屬的一個種,落葉灌木。樹高1.5-2.5m,叢狀樹形。樹皮光滑,多年生枝條灰褐色,新梢淡褐色;皮孔圓形,灰色。冬芽赤褐色,圓錐形,為混合芽。根係屬淺根性,水平根發達,主根分佈於30-40cm土層中。花為完全花,白色;小花冠徑1.5cm,花萼花瓣各5枚,離生雄蕊15-18枚,花藥為背著藥,粉紅色;雌蕊為合生心皮,5小室,每室1-2個胚珠,子房下位;复傘房花序6-8cm,由10-40朵小花組成。葉片互生,單葉橢圓形,葉緣重鋸齒,葉脈羽狀;深綠而光滑,大小3 × 5 cm;在秋天,葉色變為燦爛的紅紫混合色。漿果,果實甜酸略有微澀味,球形,果皮紫黑色,果肉暗紅色,單果重1-2g,果徑1.4cm。種子千粒重4.6g

2.2 物候期
在建平試驗點,
4月上旬​​芽萌動,4月中旬新梢開始生長,4月下旬展葉;5月上旬開花,花期20天,5月下旬座果; 7月末果實變紅;8月上旬新梢高生長停止,8月末果實變黑、新梢粗生長停止;9月上旬果實成熟;10月中旬葉變為紫紅色;11月上旬落葉,彩葉期20天。營養生長集中於5-7月。從芽膨脹至落葉歷時200天左右,從新梢生長至新梢高生長停止需90天左右。從幼果膨大至果實成熟需100天左右。

2.3 生長特性  
黑果腺肋花楸萌蘗力強,春季芽萌動較早,新梢停止生長與同科樹比較也較早。新梢在
5月下旬生長最快,旬平均長生長7.2cm,徑粗生長0.05cm,即生長高峰期。從6月上旬開始,枝條生長逐漸轉慢,至8月上旬大部分新梢長生長停止,年平均生長量29.1cm。新梢徑粗生長從6月上旬轉慢,7月中旬又開始加速生長,至7月下旬又緩慢下滑,8月末生長逐漸停止,年平均徑粗0.5cm

2.4 開花、結果習性  
黑果腺肋花楸的花屬兩性花,花芽為混合芽,頂芽、側芽均可結果。定植
2年後有部分植株開始座果,3-4年有部分產量,單株鮮果產量可達1.09kg。定植5年的樹平均單株花序可達127.4個,平均每花序結果數為8.1個,最高達36個;結果1-10個的花序佔56.9%11-20個的花序佔39.7%21個以上的花序佔3.4%。定植5年幼樹結果枝率為83.8%,座果率較高,一般可達80%—90%,單位面積產量可達5.36t/ hm2

果實生長前、中期(
5月中下旬至7月中旬)生長量縱徑大於橫徑,後期(7月下旬至8月下旬)橫徑大於縱徑。 5月下旬果徑增長速度較快。縱徑從6月上旬增長速度開始下降,中下旬又呈緩慢上升趨勢。橫徑增長速度則從5月下旬開始一直呈下降趨勢。從6月下旬至7月中旬,縱、橫徑增長速度明顯加快,呈高峰期。從7月下旬開始增長速度迅速下降,8月下旬停止生長而進入成熟階段。

2.5 抗逆性
該樹種具較強的耐寒能力,可耐
-40℃低溫,達美國3區和加拿大3區。一些品種可耐-46—-50℃的嚴寒。抗旱性較強,在降水量500mm以上地區可自然生長,廣泛分佈於美國中西部地區。

土壤要求:適應從一般到潮濕,從微鹼性到酸性的大多數土壤。在土壤
pH8.0以上時,出現葉黃化現象。但是有些品種可以在pH8.5的土壤上生長。

病蟲害:不存在嚴重的病蟲害問題。

光照要求:從全光照到部分遮蔽(
50%以上)。但在遮光條件下果實品質下降,在全光下生長旺盛。生長量和產量取決於立地條件。

3 應用價值及市場前景

3.1 食用和藥用價值
該樹種是集食用、藥用、園林和生態等價值於一身的珍貴樹種。黑果腺肋花楸果實具有非凡的保健作用。果實及其提取物對心髒病、高血壓等心腦血管疾病具有特殊的療效,在歐美地區廣泛應用於醫藥和功能食品工業。果實中花青素、黃酮(鮮果含量高達
0.25%-0.35%)、多酚是已知植物中含量最高的。果實還含有多種維生素和礦質元素等物質。多酚是改善毛細血管和血管的結構與機能的非常重要的物質,還有​​助於刺激和改善循環系統。花青素和黃酮能夠維持人的心臟和機體的健康。據《新英格蘭醫藥雜誌》(339卷,15期)報導,花青素和黃酮(及其糖苷)有助於保持尿道健康。黑果腺肋花楸果實富含Vc和抗氧化劑(Beta Carotene(胡蘿蔔素)),抗氧化劑具有抗衰老功能。果實提取物對治療輻射病和重金屬中毒症有很好的療效。伊利諾斯州立大學功能食品項目的研究人員得出了黑果腺肋花楸果實含有治療癌症和心髒病的特定化合物的結論。果實可用於加工果汁、果酒、果醬、罐頭、果脯等食品和飲料。

中國有
30%的人口患有高血壓,隨著我國人民生活水平的提高,對生命質量和健康水平有了更高的要求。因此,對該樹種的果實及其加工製品的需求是非常巨大的。

3.2 園林觀賞價值
從觀賞角度看,黑果腺肋花楸樹形小而美觀,具有四季皆宜的觀賞效果,是集觀賞花、葉、果等價值於一身的珍貴花灌木,在歐美地區廣泛應用於園林綠化,是三北地區苗木公司和廣大農戶引種的理想選擇。該樹種花束密集,艷麗芳香,花期較長;秋葉的強烈色彩使其有
秋天魔術之稱;冬季果實宿存於枝頭至翌年2月,這在一般花灌木中是不多見的。作為一個新的珍貴的花灌木品種,在家庭花園作為觀賞灌木或沿高速公路密集栽植,用於公園和城市美化都是非常好的。加之該樹種較強的抗寒性和對土壤條件的廣泛適應性使其在一個廣泛的地理區域市場上具有非常可觀的銷售潛力。

3.3 生態價值
該樹種可廣泛用於綠化荒山、保持水土,既有生態效益又有經濟效益,在生態的恢復和重建中具有廣闊的市場前景。在自然條件下生長,黑果腺肋花楸會形成灌木群落,可以為野生動物和鳥類提供掩蔽和食物。也可以與其它的喬灌木組成喬灌混交林,增加林分的樹種多樣性和生態穩定性,提高生態林的防護功能。對於治理和綠化只生長苔蘚和蚊子的惡劣的地勢較低的濕地,該樹種是極好的選擇。

4 栽培技術
繁殖:易生根,各種繁殖方式均可行。
立地條件:黑果腺肋花楸喜濕潤的酸性或微鹼性土壤和生長季節降水充沛的氣候條件。在我國三北地區,符合下列生物氣候條件和土壤條件的地區都可以栽培:年降水量
>500mm,極限低溫>-40℃,土壤pH5.0-8.0,土層厚度>40cm

整地:方形栽植穴,
40cm×40cm×40cm

行株距:在降水量
<600mm地區,2m×1.5m;在降水量>600mm地區,3m×2m

施肥:肥料品種為磷酸二銨,春季施肥。
3-4齡幼樹50g/株;5齡以上的樹100g/株。

病蟲害防治:蟲害輕微,沒有病害,在其栽培管理過程中不需要使用化學農藥、殺菌劑等。

果園管理:
678月各割草一次,用生草覆蓋樹盤。在降水量<600mm地區使用秸稈覆蓋方法提高果園土壤蓄水量。

修剪:很少需要修剪。但為了控制生長和促進發枝,也可進行夏季修剪。基部萌條可以剪除或留下以形成理想的定制群體。

果實採收:黑果腺肋花楸果實的採收期對果實的有益成分含量影響較大,採收季節應在夏末秋初。人工採收和機械採收均可。成熟充分的果實顏色更深、更濃,有益營養成分如花青素,多酚,類黃酮等的濃度更大。

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